Process-Based Design of Multimedia Annotation Systems
Hofmann, Cristian Erick
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Annotation of digital multimedia comprises a range of different application scenarios,supported media and annotation formats, and involved techniques. Accordingly, recentannotation environments provide numerous functions and editing options. This resultsin complexly designed user interfaces, so that human operators are disoriented withrespect to task procedures and the selection of accurate tools.In this thesis we contribute to the operability of multimedia annotation systems in severalnovel ways. We introduce concepts to support annotation processes, at whichprinciples of Workflow Management are transferred. Particularly focusing on the behaviorof graphical user interface components, we achieve a significant decrease ofuser disorientation and processing times. In three initial studies, we investigate multimedia annotation from two differentperspectives. A Feature-oriented Analysis of Annotation Systems describesapplied techniques and forms of processed data. Moreover, a conducted EmpiricalStudy and Literature Survey elucidate different practices of annotation,considering case examples and proposed workflow models. Based on the results of the preliminary studies, we establish a Generic ProcessModel of Multimedia Annotation, summarizing identified sub-processes andtasks, their sequential procedures, applied services, as well as involved data formats. By a transfer into a Formal Process Specification we define information entitiesand their interrelations, constituting a basis for workflow modeling, and declaringtypes of data which need to be managed and processed by the technicalsystem. We propose a Reference Architecture Model, which elucidates the structure andbehavior of a process-based annotation system, also specifying interactions andinterfaces between different integrated components. As central contribution of this thesis, we introduce a concept for Process-drivenUser Assistance. This implies visual and interactive access to a given workflow,representation of the workflow progress, and status-dependent invocationof tools.We present results from a User Study conducted by means of the so-called SemAnnotframework. We implemented this novel framework based on our considerationsmentioned above. In this study we show that the application of our proposed conceptfor process-driven user assistance leads to strongly significant improvements ofthe operability of multimedia annotation systems. These improvements are associatedwith the partial aspects efficiency, learnability, usability, process overview, and usersatisfaction.