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Item Three Architectures for Volume Rendering(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Hesser, Jurgen; Manner, Reinhard; Knittel, Gunter; Strasser, Wolfgang; Pfister, Hanspeter; Kaufman, ArieShow more Volume rendering is a key technique in scientific visualization that lends itself to significant exploitable parallelism. The high computational demands of real-time volume rendering and continued technological advances in the area of VLSl give impetus to the development of special-purpose volume rendering architectures. This paper presents and characterizes three recently developed volume rendering engines which are based on the ray-casting method. A taxonomy of the algorithmic variants of ray-casting and details of each ray-casting architecture are discussed. The paper then compares the machinefeatures and provides an outlook onfuture developments in the area of volume rendering hardware.Show more Item Multiresolution B-spline Radiosity(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Yu, Yizhou; Peng, QunshengShow more This paper introduces a kind of new wavelet radiosity method called multiresolution B-spline radiosity, which uses B-splines of different scales to represent radiosity distribution functions. A set of techniques and algorithms, such as function extrapolation, adaptive quadrature, scale adjustment and octree, are proposed to implement it. This method sets up hierarchical structures on surfaces, keeps radiosity distribution continuous at element boundaries, does not need postprocessing, and does not prevent the use of any surface whose parameter domain is rectilinear.Show more Item Visibility and Dead-Zones in Digital Terrain Maps(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Or, Daniel Cohen; Shaked, AmitShow more The problem of detecting the visible and hidden areas of a topographic surface from a given viewpoint is well known, and has applications in GIS and other fields. The computational geometry literature is rich with solutions based on a polygonal representation of the surface. This work confronts the problem by working directly on the Digital Elevation Map which represents the terrain surface. We present an algorithm that processes discrete lines of sight from the viewpoint to the surface perimeter, and tests the unit-sized terrain elements along the discrete cross-sections defined by these lines. The algorithm is very efficient, performing O(n) testing operations, consisting of a few additions and no more than one multiplication each, where n is the number of the terrain elements in the map.Show more Item Fast Wavelet Based Volume Rendering by Accumulation of Transparent Texture Maps(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Lippert, L.; Gross, M. H.Show more In the following paper, a new method for fast and accurate volume intensity and color integration is elaborated, which employs wavelet decompositions and texture mapping. At this point, it comprises and unifies the advantages of recently introduced Fourier domain volume rendering techniques and wavelet based volume rendering. Specifically, the method computes analytic solutions of the ray intensity integral through a single wavelet by slicing its Fourier transform and by backprojecting it into the spatial domain. The resulting slices can be considered as RGB textures where R, G and B account for the decomposed volume color function. Due to the similarity of the basis functions, the computation of the texture map has to be figured out only once for each 3D mother wavelet. Hence, the final volume rendering procedure turns out to be a superposition of self-similar, transparent and colored textures, which is supported by modern hardware accumulation buffers. Linear shading and attenuation can be introduced by modifications of the wavelet s Fourier transform.The main advantages of this method are the provision of accurate solutions and quantification of error bounds, the absence of any expensive prefiltering and the independence of the computational costs from the image resolution. Furthermore, any required discretization, such as the resolution of the basis textures is defined within the computational framework of the wavelet transform. The method is not restricted to a specific type of wavelet unless is provides an analytic Fourier description, such as any B-spline wavelets do.Show more Item Morphological Operations for Color-Coded Images(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Busch, Christoph and Eberle, MichaelShow more The subject of this paper is the semantically based postprocessing of color-coded images such as classification results. We outline why the classical definition of mathematical morphology suffers if it is used for processing of coded image data. Therefore we provide an extension for morphological operations such as dilation, erosion, opening, and closing. With a new understanding of morphology we introduce bridging and tunneling as further combinations of dilation and erosion. The extensions are applied to medical image data, where the semantic rules stem from basic anatomical knowledge.Show more Item The HUMANOID Environment for Interactive Animation of Multiple Deformable Human Characters(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Boulic, R.; Capin, T.; Huang, Z.; Kalra, P.; Lintermann, B.; Magnenat-Thalmann, N.; Moccozet, L. and Molet, T. and Pandzic, I. and Saar, K. and Schmitt, A. and Shen, J. and Thalmann, D.Show more We describe the HUMANOID environment dedicated to human modeling and animation for general multimedia, VR, and CAD applications integrating virtual humans. We present the design of the system and the integration of the various features: generic modeling of a large class of entities with the BODY data structure, realistic skin deformation for body and hands, facial animation, collision detection, integrated motion control and parallelization of computation intensive tasks.Show more Item Discrete Ray-Tracing of Huge Voxel Spaces(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Stolte, Nilo; Caubet, ReneShow more The quality of images produced by Discrete Ray-Tracing voxel spaces is highly dependent on 3d grid resolution. The huge amount of memory needed to store such grids often discards discrete Ray-Tracing as a practical visualization algorithm. The use of an octree can drastically change this when most of space is empty, as such is the case in most scenes.Although the memory problem can be bypassed using the octree, the performance problem still remains. A known fact is that the performance of discrete traversal is optimal for quite low resolutions. This problem can be easily solved by dividing the task in two steps, working in two low resolutions instead of just one high resolution, thus taking advantage of optimal times in both steps. This is possible thanks to the octree property of representing the same scene in several different resolutions. This article presents a two step Discrete Ray-Tracing method using an octree and shows, by comparing it with the single step version, that a substantial gain in performance is achieved.Show more Item An Adaptive Spatial Subdivision of the Object Space for Fast Collision Detection of Animated Rigid Bodies(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Bandi, Srikanth; Thalmann, DanielShow more Collision detection tests between objects dominate run time simulation of rigid body animation. Traditionally, hierarchical bounding box tests are used to minimize collision detection time. But the bounding boxes do not take shapes of the objects into account which results in a large number of collision detection tests. We propose an adaptive spatial subdivision of the object space based on octree structure to rectify this problem. We also present a technique for efficiently updating this structure periodically during the simulation.Show more Item Automatic Reconstruction of Unstructured 3D Data: Combining a Medial Axis and Implicit Surfaces(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Bittar, Eric; Tsingos, Nicolas; Gascuel, Marie-PauleShow more This paper presents a new method that combines a medial axis and implicit surfaces in order to reconstruct a 3D solid from an unstructured set of points scattered on the object s surface. The representation produced is based on iso-surfaces generated by skeletons, and is a particularly compact way of defining a smooth free-form solid. The method is based on the minimisation of an energy representing a"distance" between the set of data points and the iso-surface, resembling previous reserach19. Initialisation, however, is more robust and efficient since there is computation of the medial axis of the set of points. Instead of subdividing existing skeletons in order to refine the object s surface, a new reconstruction algorithm progressively selects skeleton-points from the pre- computed medial axis using an heuristic principle based on a"local energy" criterion. This drastically speeds up the reconstruction process. Moreover, using the medial axis allows reconstruction of objects with complex topology and geometry, like objects that have holes and branches or that are composed of several connected components. This process is fully automatic. The method has been successfully applied to both synthetic and real data.Show more Item Algorithms for Extracting Correct Critical Points and Constructing Topological Graphs from Discrete Geographical Elevation Data(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Takahashi, Shigeo; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Shinagawa, Yoshihisa; Kunii, Tosiyasu L.; Ueda, MinoruShow more Researchers in the fields of computer graphics and geographical information systems (GISs) have extensively studied the methods of extracting terrain features such as peaks, pits, passes, ridges, and ravines from discrete elevation data. The existing techniques, however, do not guarantee the topological integrity of the extracted features because of their heuristic operations, which results in spurious features. Furthermore, there have been no algorithms for constructing topological graphs such as the surface network and the Reeb graph from the extracted peaks, pits, and passes. This paper presents new algorithms for extracting features and constructing the topological graphs using the features. Our algorithms enable us to extract correct terrain features; i.e., our method extracts the critical points that satisfy the Euler formula, which represents the topological invariant of smooth surfaces. This paper also provides an algorithm that converts the surface network to the Reeb graph for representing contour changes with respect to the height. The discrete elevation data used in this paper is a set of sample points on a terrain surface. Examples are presented to show that the algorithms also appeal to our visual cognition.Show more Item Realizing 3D Visual Programming Environments within a Virtual Environment(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Van Reeth, F.; Coninx, K.; De Backer, S.; Flerackers, E.Show more In the visual programming community, many interesting graphical metaphors have been reported upon for representing computer programs graphically. Most of them have a 2D or 2.5D appearance on the screen in order to reflect the inherent multi-dimensionality of the programming constructs being represented. By going into a three-dimensional representation, this reflection can go a stepfurther. With ever increasing3D graphics rendering capabilities on todays computers, it moreover becomes feasible to extend the dimensionality of the program (and data structure) depiction. We follow this approach by realizing 3D graphical programming techniques within CAEL, our interactive Computer Animation Environment Language. The paper elucidates how several concepts, traditionally found within the Virtual Environments area, can be utilized in the realization of three-dimensional Programming Environments.Show more Item Synthesizing Feather Textures in Galliformes(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Dai, Wen-Kai; Shih, Zen-Chung; Chang, Ruei-ChuanShow more The texture of feather is one of the most fascinating, complicated, and beautiful texture patterns in nature. In this paper, we propose a new and effective texture generation approach that uses the traits of iteration behavior to synthesize the textures of Galliformes feathers realistically. We also propose an interactive feather modeling approach which provides a close connection between the user s intuition and the resulting branching pattern. In texturing the feather structure, we use an object-space mapping technique. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of our method.Show more Item A Multimedia Constraint System1(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) van Hintum, J.E.A.; Reynolds, G.J.Show more The MADE constraint system provides excellent opportunities to introduce constraints in a multimedia application. Multimedia applications are not only a good place to experiment with constraint systems- constraints in a multimedia environment are almost indispensable. Due to the overwhelming amount of data and the number of relations between several parts of this data, multimedia applications almost demand the support of a constraint management system.The MADE constraint system combines the object oriented programming paradigm, inherited from the mC++ language, the declarative constraint programming paradigm and the special requirements imposed upon the constraint system by the multimedia environment. Among other things, the MADE constraint system provides parallel satisfaction techniques- several constraints may be solved simultaneously and this satisfaction process is performed in parallel with the application. This not only reduces the time needed to solve the constraints, it also allows the multimedia application to proceed with its presentation while (beneath the surface) the constraints are maintained. This not only holds for the parts of the presentation that are not constrained at all, but also for those parts that are. Furthermore, the constraint system is transparent to the multimedia application- no special coding or preparation of the objects in the application is necessary. Constraints can be added later to the application without much work. Besides that, it is also possible to add and remove constraints at runtime- objects may be constrained for only a period of the time the application is running.Show more Item A Quick Rendering Method Using Basis Functions for Interactive Lighting Design(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Dobashi, Yoshinori; Kaneda, Kazufumi; Nakatani, Hideki; Yamashita, Hideo; Nishita, TomoyukiShow more When designing interior lighting effects, it is desirable to compare a variety of lighting designs involving different lighting devices and directions of light. It is, however, time-consuming to generate images with many different lighting parameters, taking interreflection into account, because all luminances must be calculated and recalculated. This makes it difficult to design lighting effects interactively. To address this problem, this paper proposes a method of quickly generating images of a given scene illustrating an interreflective environment illuminated by sources with arbitrary luminous intensity distributions. In the proposed method, the luminous intensity ditribution is expressed with basis functions. The proposed method uses a series of spherical harmonic functions as basis functions, and calculates in advance each intensity on surfaces lit by the light sources whose luminous intensity distribution are the same as the spherical harmonic functions. The proposed method makes it possible to generate images so quickly that we can change the luminous intensity distribution interactively. Combining the proposed method with an interactive walk-through that employs intensity mapping, an interactive system for lighting design is implemented. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated by its application to interactive lighting design, where many images are generated by altering lighting devices and/or direction of light.Show more Item Sketching 3D Animations(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Balaguer, Jean-Francis; Gobbetti, EnricoShow more We are interested in providing animators with a general-purpose tool allowing them to create animations using straight-ahead actions as well as pose-to-pose techniques. Our approach seeks to bring the expressiveness of real-time motion capture systems into a general-purpose multi-track system running on a graphics workstation. We emphasize the use of high-bandwidth interaction with 3D objects together with specific data reduction techniques for the automatic construction of editable representations of interactively sketched continuous parameter evolution. In this paper, we concentrate on providing a solution to the problem of applying data reduction techniques in an animation context. The requirements that must be fulfilled by the data reduction algorithm are analyzed. From the Lyche and Morken knot removal strategy, we derive an incremental algorithm that computes a B-spline approximation to the original curve by considering only a small piece of the total curve at any time. This algorithm allows the processing of the user s captured motion in parallel with its specification, and guarantees constant latency time and memory needs for input motions composed of any number of samples. After showing the results obtained by applying our incremental algorithm to 3D animation paths, we describe an integrated environment to visually construct 3D animations, where all interaction is done directly in three dimensions. By recording the effects of user s manipulations and taking into account the temporal aspect of the interaction, straight-ahead animations can be defined. Our algorithm is automatically applied to continuous parameter evolution in order to obtain editable representations. The paper concludes with a presentation offuture work.Show more Item Synthetic Vision and Audition for Digital Actors(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) NOSER, Hansrudi; THALMANN, DanielShow more We present an overview of some principles of synthetic vision and audition for digital autonomous actors in virtual worlds. After a short review of the state-of-the-art we focus on some aspects of synthetic vision and virtual world constraints. Then, we present a simple real time structured sound renderer. This sound renderer is used as audition channel for synthetic and real actors and synchronized sound track generator for video film productions.Show more Item Spherical Triangular B-splines with Application to Data Fitting(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Pfeifle, Ron; Seidel, Hans-PeterShow more Triangular B-splines surfaces are a tool for representing arbitrary piecewise polynomial surfaces over planar triangulations, while automatically maintaining continuity properties across patch boundaries. Recently, Alfeld et al. [1] introduced the concept of spherical barycentric coordinates which allowed them to formulate Bernstein-Bezier polynomials over the sphere.In this paper we use the concept of spherical barycentric coordinates to develop a similar formulation for triangular B-splines, which we call spherical triangular B-splines. These splines defined over spherical triangulations share the same continuity properties and similar evaluation algorithms with their planar counterparts, but possess none of the annoying degeneracies found when trying to represent closed surfaces using planar parametric surfaces. We also present an example showing the use of these splines for approximating spherical scattered data.Show more Item A Graph-Based Approach to Surface Reconstruction(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Mencl, RobertShow more A new approach to the reconstruction of a surface from an unorganized set of points in space is presented. The point set may for example be obtained with a laser scanner or a manual digitizing tool, and is the only source of information about the shape of the acquired object. The basic idea is to calculate the Euclidean minimum spanning tree (EMST) of the given points. The EMST is then augmented to the so-called surface description graph (SDG). Finally the wire frame defined by the SDG are filled with triangles. The advantage of our approach is that also highly non-convex and even disconnected surfaces are reconstructed quite reliably. This is demonstrated for a variety of data sets.Show more Item A Direct Manipulation Interface for 3D Computer Animation(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Snibbe, Scott SonaShow more We present a new set of interface techniques for visualizing and editing animation directly in a single three-dimensional scene. Motion is edited using direct-manipulation tools which satisfy high-level goals such as"reach this point at this time" or"go faster at this moment". These tools can be applied over an arbitrary temporal range and maintain arbitrary degrees of spatial and temporal continuity.We separate spatial and temporal control of position by using two curves for each animated object: the motion path which describes the 3D spatial path along which an object travels, and the motion graph, a function describing the distance traveled along this curve over time. Our direct-manipulation tools are implemented using displacement functions, a straightforward and scalable technique for satisfying motion constraints by composition of the displacement function with the motion graph or motion path. This paper will focus on applying displacement functions to positional change. However, the techniques presented are applicable to the animation of orientation, color, or any other attribute that varies over time.Show more Item VR-VIBE: A Virtual Environment for Co-operative Information Retrieval(Blackwell Science Ltd and the Eurographics Association, 1995) Benford, Steve; Snowdon, Dave; Greenhalgh, Chris; Ingram, Rob; Knox, Ian; Brown, ChrisShow more We present a virtual reality application called VR-VIBE which is intended to support the co-operative browsing and filtering of large document stores. VR-VIBE extends a visualisation approach proposed in a previous two dimensional system called VIBE into three dimensions, allowing more information to be visualised at one time and supporting more powerful styles of interaction, The essence of VR-VIBE is that multiple users can explore the results of applying several simultaneous queries to a corpus of documents. By arranging the queries into a spatial framework, the system shows the relative attraction of each document to each query by its spatial position and also shows the absolute relevance of each document to all of the queries. Users may then navigate the space, select individual documents, control the display according to a dynamic relevance threshold and dynamically drag the queries to new positions to see the effect on the document space. Co-operative browsing is supported by directly embodying users and providing them with the ability to interact over live audio connections and to attach brief textual annotations to individual documents. Finally, we conclude with some initial observations gleaned from our experience of constructing VR-VIBE and using it in the laboratory setting.Show more