Automatic Optimization of 3D Mesh Data for Real-Time Online Presentation
Limper, Max Alfons
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Interactive 3D experiences are becoming increasingly available as a part of our every-day life. Examples are ranging from common video games to virtual reality experiences and augmented reality apps on smart phones. A rapidly growing area are interactive 3D applications running inside common Web browsers, enabling to serve millions of users worldwide using solely standard Web technology. However, while Web-based 3D presentation technology is getting more and more advanced, a crucial problem that remains is the optimization of 3D mesh data, such as highly detailed 3D scans, for efﬁcient transmission and online presentation. In this context, the needfordedicated3Dexperts,beingabletoworkwithvariousspecializedtools,signiﬁcantlylimitsthescalability of 3D optimization workﬂows in many important areas, such as Web-based 3D retail or online presentation of cultural heritage. Moreover, since Web-based 3D experiences are nowadays ubiquitous, an optimal delivery format must work well on a wide range of possible client devices, including tablet PCs and smart phones, while still offering acceptable compression rates and progressive streaming. Automatically turning high-resolution 3D meshesintocompact3Drepresentationsforonlinepresentations,usinganefﬁcientstandardformatforcompression and transmission, is therefore an important key challenge, which remained largely unsolved so far. Within this thesis, a fully-automated pipeline for appearance-preserving optimization of 3D mesh data is presented, enabling direct conversion of high-resolution 3D meshes to an optimized format for real-time online presentation. The ﬁrst part of this thesis discusses 3D mesh processing algorithms for fully-automatic optimization of 3D mesh data, including mesh simpliﬁcation and texture mapping. In this context, a novel saliency detection method for mesh simpliﬁcation is presented, as well as a new method for automatic overlap removal in parameterizations using cuts with minimum length and, ﬁnally, a method to compact texture atlases using a cut-and-repack strategy. The second part of the thesis deals with the design of an optimized format for 3D mesh data on the Web. It covers various relevant aspects, such as efﬁcient encoding of mesh geometry and mesh topology, a physically-based format for material data, and progressive streaming of textured triangle meshes. The contributions made in this context during the creation of this thesis had notable impact on the design of the current standard format for 3D mesh data on the Web, glTF 2.0, which is nowadays supported by the vast majority of online 3D viewers.